• Backward Compatibility: Incorporating the process of emulation of old interpreters on new hardware in order to preserve the bit stream.
  • Bibliotheca Alexandrina: A library and cultural center, located on the Mediterranean that commemorates the Library of Alexandria.
  • Collection: Set of documents that are brought together under a uniform searching and browsing interface.
  • Cotton/Linen Paper: Before the 19th century many documents were made from cotton or linen rags that can survive for hundreds of years.
  • Domesday Project: In 1986 the 900th anniversary of the Domesday Book was being celebrated by creating a digital repository, created by the BBC in London, through area surveys conducted by schools with text and pictures to demonstrate the look of the area in 1986.
  • Domesday Book: The Domesday Book is a 900 hundred-year-old document commissioned by William the Conqueror to provide records of the land he conquered.
  • EMACS:  A manual created by Richard Stallman in 1981, which demonstrates the loss of the original document by only using a double-sided version that was copied single-sided.
  • Emulation:  Retaining the documents in exactly the same form as they are and emulating the functionality of the original, obsolete system on future, unknown systems, so that a digital document’s original software can be run in the future despite being obsolete.
  • Internet Archive:  An archive that captures records of the text and images in the documents that appear on the Web, which was created in 1996 by Brewster Kahle.
  • LOCKSS: Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe is an open source software system that allows libraries to collect, preserve and disseminate materials to its own readers.
  • Migration: Translating a document from the old format, with obsolete software, to one that is accepted by new software.
  • NARA: National Archives and Records Administration is a national archive that provides the nation with archival materials of our government, society and culture.
  • Preservation: According to, preservation is to keep safe from harm or injury; protect or spare.
  • PapersPast: A digital library that provides New Zealand newspapers from 1839 to 1945.
  • Physical bit stream:  Physical stream of bits that makes up each document and preserving the logical means by which these bits are interpreted as a document through emulating hardware and software or migrating systems.
  • Sustainability: The ability to maintain digital materials for long-term preservation.
  • Universal Virtual Computer: A project of the national libraries of Germany and the Netherlands, which have been working to create software architecture that influences digital preservation at IBM.
  • U. S. Commission on Preservation and Access:  According to ECPA’s website it is a European commission formed in 1994 to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to the cultural and intellectual heritage.
  • Wayback Machine: A free internet service that allows users to see archived versions of Web pages over time.

Witten, I. H., Bainbridge, D., Nichols, D. M. (2009). How to build a digital library. Burlington, MA : Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Click here to edit.

3D image: Stereoscopy, stereoscopic imaging or 3-D (three-dimensional) imaging is any technique capable of recording three-dimensional visual information or creating the illusion of depth in an image.

Annotations: a critical or explanatory note or body of notes added to a text.

Archiving: Usually, archives documents or records relating to the activities, business dealings, etc., of a person, family, corporation, association, community, or nation. - Archives, a place where public records or other historical documents are kept. - Any extensive record or collection of data.

Vision (computer): A branch of artificial intelligence and image processing concerned with computer processing of images from the real world. Computer vision typically requires a combination of low level image processing to enhance the image quality (e.g. remove noise, increase contrast) and higher level pattern recognition and image understanding to recognize features present in the image.

Cyberinfrastructure: describes the new research environments that support advanced data acquisition, data storage, data management, data integration, data mining, data visualization and other computing and information processing services over the Internet.

DILIGENT: DIgital Library Infrastructure on Grid ENabled Technology(DILIGENT)[2] is a three-year integrated project (2004-2007) funded by the European Commission under the Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. The objective of this project is to develop a digital library infrastructure that will enable members of dynamic virtual research organizations to create on-demand transient digital libraries that exploit shared resources.The DILIGENT infrastructure can be understood as a broker serving DL resource providers and consumers. The providers are the individuals and the organizations that decide to publish their resources under the supervision of the broker, according to certain access and use policies.

Ergonomic: designed to minimize physical effort and discomfort, and hence maximize efficiency.

Envisage: to contemplate; visualize

 “Five laws of library science” – Chapter 2
  1. Books are for use.
  2. Every reader his [or her] book.
  3. Every book its reader.
  4. Save the time of the reader.
  5. The library is a growing organism.

Flexibility: capable of being bent, usually without breaking; easily bent: a flexible ruler. - susceptible of modification or adaptation; adaptable: a flexible schedule. - willing or disposed to yield; pliable: a flexible personality.

Format: Computers - The arrangement of data for computer input or output, such as the number and size of fields in a record or the spacing and punctuation of information in a report.  

Functionalities: of or pertaining to a function or functions. - Capable of operating or functioning. - Having or serving a utilitarian purpose; capable of serving the purpose for which it was designed. - Constructed or made according to the principles of functionalism or primarily as a direct fulfillment of a material need.

Futuristic: denoting or relating to design, technology, etc, that is thought likely to be current or fashionable at some future time; ultramodern.

Grid Computingthe combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal. The Grid can be thought of as a distributed systemwith non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files.

Interactive: acting one upon or with the other.  - Of or pertaining to a two-way system of electronic communications, as by means of television or computer. - (of a computer program or system) interacting with a human user, often in a conversational way, to obtain data or commands and to give immediate results or updated information.

Interoperability: of or relating to the ability to share data between different computer systems, esp on different machines: interoperable network management systems.

Image: a physical likeness or representation of a person, animal, or thing, photographed, painted, sculptured, or otherwise made visible.

Multimedia: the combined use of several media, as sound and full-motion video in computer applications. - Of, pertaining to, or involving the use of multimedia. - Having or offering the use of various communications or promotional media: a multimedia corporation that owns TV stations and newspapers. 

Orwellian setting: describes the situation, setting, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free society.

Personalization: to have marked with one's initials, name, or monogram: to personalize stationery. - To make personal, as by applying a general statement to oneself. - To ascribe personal qualities to; personify.

Portable: capable of being transported or conveyed: a portable stage. - Easily carried or conveyed by hand: a portable typewriter. - Computers (of data sets, software, etc.) capable of being used on different computer systems. 

Simulation: imitation or enactment, as of something anticipated or in testing. -The act or process of pretending; feigning. - An assumption or imitation of a particular appearance or form.

Video: relating to or employed in the transmission or reception of a televised image

Digital Data Terms and Conditions

The following definitions are derived from a number of sources, including the American Library Associations (, National Information Assurance Glossary (, and Joint Information Systems Committee Digital Information Briefing Paper (

Appraisal: Evaluation and selection of digital material for long-term curation and preservation, documented policies, guidance, and legal requirements may require that it be done securely;

Authentication:  Security measure designed to establish the validity of transmission, message or originator or a means of verifying an individual’s authority to receive specific categories of information

Curation:  Digital curation, broadly interpreted, is about maintaining and adding value to a trusted body of information for current and future use.  It builds on the underlying concepts of digital preservation while emphasizing opportunities for added value and knowledge through annotation and continuing resource management

Digital Rights Management:  The use of technologies to control how digital content is used and reused

Ingest: Controlled or secure transfer of material to an archive, repository, data center, or other custodial environments in adherence to documented guidance, policies, or legal requirements

Metadata:  Documentation relating to data content, structure, provenance (history), and context (such as experimental parameters and environmental conditions).  Standards for metadata provide a baisi for widespread community sharing

Preservation Action:  Actions undertaken to ensure the long-term viability and availability of the authoritative nature of digital material.  Preservation actions should ensure the material remains authentic, reliable, and usable while its integrity is maintained; such actions include validations, assigning preservation metadata, assigning representation information, and ensuring acceptable data structures and file formats

Berman, F. (2008). Got data? a guide to data preservation in the information age. Communications of the ACM, 51(12), 50-56. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.  Doi:10.1145/1409360.1409376